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The Gridlock Guy- Doug Turnbull

  • Transportation is a unity ticket of sorts. Candidates may have nuanced disagreements about how to tackle Georgia’s - and namely, Metro Atlanta’s - transportation and traffic issues, but their views are largely similar. This is why transportation, for as big as the problem is, isn’t a centerpiece in most campaigns. » RELATED: How Georgia counties voted in the 2018 Georgia Gubernatorial election Clay Tippins’ ill-fated gubernatorial campaign was one exception to this strategy, with his transportation-fueled attack on former Lt. Gov. Casey Cagle. The primary race didn’t work out well for either. AJC transportation reporter David Wickert did a great piece on where both Brian Kemp and Stacey Abrams stand on transportation. At the time of the deadline, the governor’s race is technically undecided, though Kemp has an almost certain clear path to victory. But whoever takes the governor’s mansion will change the trajectory that outgoing Governor Nathan Deal has set. “In one-on-one conversations with Secretary Kemp, I think he is planning to continue existing GDOT plans for greater use of reversible lanes,” CSI Crane principal and WSB Radio political analyst Bill Crane said. “And though he sees the benefits of greater connectivity between Georgia's population centers, I'm not sure he is sold that we need more than 'good roads' to do that.” Wickert’s piece explained how some of the state’s long term plans received approval, but not very transparently, something both Kemp and Abrams said they would change. Kemp also wants to see more public-private partnerships on projects, particularly mass transit. Abrams, meanwhile, wants to set aside $150 million in government bonds for transit. “[To] ensure that the state remains a key investor in transit through our bonding capacity; general fund incentives where appropriate; and inclusion of transit as a permitted use of motor fuel taxes, without sacrificing our current efforts on roads, bridges and economic development projects,” Abrams told the AJC. Former state representative Geoff Duncan won the Lieutenant Governorship, succeeding Cagle, and Crane said this could impact transportation legislation going forward. “The Senate has a new L.G., who isn't Lieutenant Governor Cagle on these issues. That may as a result be new committee chairs, though I know Senator Brandon Beach would prefer to remain in his position, he was among the most visible Cagle supporters.” Crane said the Lieutenant Governor chooses the committee chairs in the state Senate and Cagle was very much a proponent of expanding transportation funding. » RELATED: Strong support for transit across metro Atlanta, survey shows With Republicans maintaining state House control, not much should change. “House leadership will be changing less, and it may sound odd, but we may end up with House Speaker David Ralston as the most visible spokesperson for further state investment in transit and transportation in the near term,” Crane said. Outgoing Representative Meagan Hanson, R-Brookhaven, centered her campaign on transportation, in hopes of winning some purple votes. Her TV ads focused almost solely on mass transit expansion. But despite that popular stance, she lost her seat to Democrat Matthew Wilson. This election is (mostly) in the books, but another special one on the horizon may do much more to shape the Atlanta transportation landscape. “The Gwinnett MARTA referendum in March rises significantly in importance. There are clearly some watershed changes in demographics and voting patterns underway there. But very little has been done to promote the referendum or benefits of expanding connectivity/transit into Gwinnett,” Crane explained. “We are now just under 120 days from that special election. My concern, as an advocate of transit options, connectivity and being competitive with the other great cities of the world, is that ifthe referendum fails in Gwinnett, MARTA may become landlocked in its current footprint for another decade or so. We are already behind the eight ball in terms of system size, expansion, etc...on that front.” In a few short paragraphs, Crane encapsulates very well how subtle changes after elections can sway Atlanta and Georgia’s traffic trajectory. Big questions on mass transit expansion, for example, get answered as low as the county commission level, where those leaders decide what happens in their areas. County commissioners are also stakeholders in the Atlanta Regional Commission, which works cooperatively to plan Atlanta’s traffic plan for decades down the road. Most people agree that Atlanta’s traffic absolutely must improve. But the path to get there may take some different turns in the coming months. » RELATED: MARTA's final Atlanta expansion plan: A detailed look Doug Turnbull, the PM drive Skycopter anchor for Triple Team Traffic on News 95-5 FM and AM-750 WSB, is the Gridlock Guy. He also writes a traffic blog and hosts a podcast with Smilin’ Mark McKay on wsbradio.com. Contact him at Doug.Turnbull@coxinc.com.
  • As transportation officials dig for cheaper, safer ways to improve both traffic flow and safety, there seem to be two trends proliferating at intersections. Local governments and the state DOT have constructed several diverging diamond interchanges (DDIs) at busy interstate interchanges in Metro Atlanta. Those are designed to eliminate left turns across oncoming traffic, a design which decreases wrecks and can improve the wait times. » RELATED: $3.3M Cobb roundabout construction closing road until March 2019 Driving thru DDIs is different, but doing so requires very little maneuvering. Drivers simply follow their lane and have very little confusion about crossing to the other side of the road and then back again. The road does all the work for the motorist. Roundabouts, meanwhile, are showing up in more places in Atlanta, but they require a bit more effort and thought from commuters. Roundabouts have been common in other countries and not just for small, neighborhood intersections. I’ve ridden through some intimidating roundabouts in Grand Cayman and Aruba that are fast, multi-laned, and confusing. But they are constantly moving. And that is the main reason that these intersections are popping up in more places in this metro area. Much like DDIs, roundabouts keep traffic moving and eliminate left turns across oncoming traffic. By decreasing overall wait times and idling time at stop signs and lights and by lessening the likelihood of wrecks, roundabouts seem like a win-win. But they take adjustments from first-time navigators. The first rule for traffic approaching a roundabout is that it must yield. All traffic outside of the traffic circle must yield to traffic inside it. It also must yield to pedestrians or bicycles in the crosswalks on each turn of the roundabout. This obviously is for safety purposes and to prevent any hesitation to the traffic flow. If drivers didn’t know which one had the preferred spot, more crashes would occur and the hesitations would cause more delays. » RELATED: Fayette County postpones Antioch Road roundabout Roundabout confusion is greatest when they have multiple lanes. Multi-lane roundabouts are not common in Atlanta, but as more engineers embrace them, there certainly could be more of them. Roundabouts move one direction: counterclockwise. Drivers entering the traffic circle and progressing just one street over — what would be a right turn in a standard intersection — enter the roundabout in the right lane and then stay there until that first turn. Drivers that are going what would be straight or left would enter the roundabout in the inside or left lane and then turn from that lane onto their desired street. They keep moving and the drivers in that outside lane can continue moving, because they have a designated lane to make that turn, without interrupting the other vehicles. In a double-lane roundabout, the turns onto each street have two lanes: one for the outside lane vehicles and one for the inside lane. This allows seamless transitions, without cars stopping. Quite possibly the golden rule of roundabouts is this: never change lanes. The lane in which one enters the roundabout is the one in which they stay until they exit. This is another genius innovation in this configuration. Eliminating lane changes means removing the friction they cause. Traffic simply keeps moving, until it exits the circle. The lack of traffic lights at intersections also means more efficient traffic flow during non-peak times. Isn’t waiting at a light when there is no traffic a real annoyance? This isn’t a problem at all in roundabouts. Just proceed with caution. One of the most noticeable roundabouts in Atlanta is that at Riverside Drive and I-285. GDOT recently converted that interchange from the standard traffic signal arrangement to a roundabout two years ago. This was done to try to make traffic off of busy I-285 somehow move better onto two-lane Riverside. Many people use Riverside to cut up to Johnson Ferry and commute into East Cobb. Unfortunately, the backup in PM drive from the right lane I-285/eastbound still stretches back about as far as it did with a traffic light. But, there are definitely very few crashes in the interchange. Do not be intimidated by roundabouts. Just follow the few simple rules and embrace them. They are much more cost-effective ways to help traffic than stringing up signals and paving more lanes. But this is Atlanta and embracing the concept of traffic actually moving can seem foreign. » RELATED: Georgia DOT held groundbreaking new Diverging Diamond Interchange Doug Turnbull, the PM drive Skycopter anchor for Triple Team Traffic on News 95-5 FM and AM-750 WSB, is the Gridlock Guy. He also writes a traffic blog and hosts a podcast with Smilin’ Mark McKay on wsbradio.com. Contact him at Doug.Turnbull@coxinc.com.
  • One complaint that arises, as schools reopen every August, is about how commutes out of neighborhoods are significantly longer. School buses stop every so often and carpool lines at schools spill out onto and clog up major roads. Schools being in session no doubt impact the commute in many areas, reaching far beyond those school safety zones. The school calendar is arguably the biggest factor in the Metro Atlanta commute. But Georgia Commute Options says that the trick to a better commute is actually more buses.  » RELATED: Gridlock Guy: This rule for sharing road with school bus just changed National School Bus Safety Week just concluded and GCO has partnered with the National Association of Pupil Transportation to promote both of their initiatives: better commutes and safety. GCO managing director Malika Reed Wilkins, PhD., wants to encourage parents to start putting their kids on school buses, instead of driving them singularly to their schools. “Our direct tie-in is about parents having their kids ride the bus,” Wilkins said. “It’s safer to ride the bus, actually 70 times more safe.” Wilkins also said each school bus takes approximately 36 vehicles off the roadways, improving both the commute and air quality. And school buses provide more reliable arrival and departure times for our youngest commuters. Each annual National School Bus Week has a theme or focus. “This year is ‘My Driver, My Safety Hero,’ which focuses on those drivers that are transporting literally hundreds of thousands of students in the region on school buses every day,” Wilkins explained. Students choose the National School Bus Safety Week theme each year and this year’s winner is from Henry County. “It’s very near and dear to our heart that the winner of a national contest came right here from Georgia, so we’re even more excited about the promotion this year.” » RELATED: Gridlock Guy: Your craftiness at the wheel may be making things worse But school buses aren’t the only concern for GCO and the school commute. Wilkins said they are promoting carpooling, another option to reduce congestion in those constricted school zones. And if parents cannot find others with which to share the driving burden, GCO has a carpool-matching service. Wilkins recommended that when parents bring their children to school, whether singularly or in a pool, to not idle in the carpool lanes. That pointless running of engines creates extra fumes that are bad for the surrounding environment and especially for the health of the kids. Teachers and other school employees that have to work that lane each day get the brunt of the extra exhaust, so their health should also be considered. For parents or anyone that wants more information on Georgia Commute Options, the services they provide, and information on school buses and commuting, visit GACommuteOptions.com or find them on various social media. Wilkins sums the campaign up: “It’s really a win-win, in terms of promoting another commuting option and a safer way to get to school.” » RELATED: Students safer, but some question school bus camera use Doug Turnbull, the PM drive Skycopter anchor for Triple Team Traffic on News 95-5 FM and AM-750 WSB, is the Gridlock Guy. He also writes a traffic blog and hosts a podcast with Smilin’ Mark McKay on wsbradio.com. Contact him at Doug.Turnbull@coxinc.com.
  • We are upon the busiest time of year on the Atlanta roads. The height of the spring and fall semesters understandably sees the most delays, as schools and activities are in full swing. The heavier the volume is, the worse the consequences are when drivers make mistakes. A recent New York Times article summarized some common driving habits and how they cause unnecessary delays. » RELATED: Gridlock Guy: Tips for drivers new to Atlanta traffic Columnist Malia Wollan talked to Northwestern University professor of transportation engineering Hani Mahmassani and garnered several helpful tips for drivers to deploy. These tips not only help the driver, but also make the whole ecosystem flow better. And that is where we should begin. Driving solo psychologically dupes us into anti-ecosystem behavior. As author Tom Vanderbilt explained in his 2009 book, “Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do,” we react at and against people in traffic like we never would if they cut us off in a grocery store line, because layers of steel and glass separate us and put us in our own bubbles. If we simply drove with more courtesy — more give and take — everything would flow better. And we would have the added benefit of being better humans. Mahmassani told Wollan that a first step a driver should take is by avoiding lanes with big rigs in them, because those semis cannot accelerate as quickly. That is easier said than done in Atlanta, as tractor trailers dot just about every lane on our freeways. Mahmassani also advises simply staying out of the right lane, as that is where most merging and exiting occurs. When making that lane change (this may seem like common sense), don’t just meander into the lane. Try to accelerate to a speed as fast, if not faster, than than the cars approaching in the new lane. Causing others to slow down actually amplifies the delay several cars back, in an effect called “shock wave,” Wollan said. But even in doing so the correct way, the act of changing lanes itself creates more traffic. This friction builds on itself, as others react to the delays in front of them by either braking hard or changing lanes themselves. Transportation engineers, including Mahmassani, tend to say that holding your line — staying in your lane — is the best policy for all traffic moving better. » RELATED: Driving tips that can help us in life This is a problem that autonomous driving technology hopes to alleviate. By eliminating the human element, driverless vehicles can communicate with each other and only make objective decisions. If these cars hold their lines, traffic will move better. Without fallible humans, these cars can even run right in front of and behind each other, creating more capacity on the roads. But the bugs haven’t been worked out of these vehicles just yet and the cost is too high for every person to scrap their car for a new one. So the ball is back in our court. One final tip may be the most obvious — but people just need to get going. Whether rubberneckers slow for no reason to look at the first set of police lights they have ever seen or Georgia drivers are illegally checking their phones when traffic stops, we all need to simply commute more decisively. Call it smooth urgency. Have awareness of your surroundings. If people are bottling up behind you, speed up or change lanes. The less abrupt and erratic the maneuver, the more smoothly traffic will flow. The faster one gets back to the gas when traffic starts moving, the less the delays will be behind them. These traffic tips may seem so common sense that they are patronizing. But people, including me, violate them all the time. As Wollan said, we should drive as if part of a formation of geese. Stay in line and keep moving. Deviations cause delays. We may zig and zag to give ourselves the perception that we are making up time, but we often are not. Holding our line and being less crafty could go further than we think to making our commutes better. » RELATED: Atlanta school traffic: Tips to keep your kids safe Doug Turnbull, the PM drive Skycopter anchor for Triple Team Traffic on News 95-5 FM and AM-750 WSB, is the Gridlock Guy. He also writes a traffic blog and hosts a podcast with Smilin’ Mark McKay on wsbradio.com. Contact him at Doug.Turnbull@coxinc.com.
  • Atlanta traffic bears an inevitability and conjures a resignation. Very few events curb it. Finished road projects may beat it back, but population growth beckons the gridlock again. Rain causes it. Sun causes it. The parallax of stop and go traffic allows that it will always stop again - somewhere or sometime. That “stop” doesn’t need much of an invitation to show up at the banquet and bring its friends. » RELATED: Heavy congestion continues in metro Atlanta; temps hover in low 70s With so many road projects constantly in place to eventually improve Atlanta’s road system, the delays they cause are mandatory. But the goal for any road or lane closure should be to, at most costs, minimize the impact on the commute. This thinking is why driving on weekends is so miserable: because weekday commutes are seen as sacred. But even this thinking on weekends gets taken to the extreme juxtaposition, as evidenced by the three or four left lanes blocked each way on I-75 in Marietta the last few weekends. The delays from that were terrible. And while more could have been done to alert motorists of the impending doom and news outlets could have underlined it, the delays at least stayed well out of rush hour. This has not been the case during several recent weeknight or midday projects. Crews on I-85/southbound in north Gwinnett had to stay out far into an AM drive last month. The reason is because a tack machine got too far ahead of the rest of the crew and the lane wasn’t dry until morning drive was half-over. The delays were awful. Just this past Tuesday, a striping machine broke. So, lane-paint on I-285/westbound (Outer Loop) between Ashford Dunwoody Road (exit 29) and Riverside Drive (exit 24) stayed wet and crews had to leave the four left lanes closed until into the 6 a.m. hour. Their picking up the closure also went painstakingly slow - it took close to an hour. I flew over this in the WSB Skycopter, as I-285 backed up all the way to I-85, thus jamming I-85/southbound from Gwinnett and Peachtree Industrial/southbound, too. » RELATED: How bad is Atlanta traffic? It depends on how you look at it A lane closure on I-675/southbound at Highway 138 in Stockbridge lasted late into PM drive a couple of weeks ago. That caused a big backup also and the explanation there was also pavement that did not dry. These delayed re-openings all had explanations: equipment or paving failures. Just bad luck or human error caused the lane closures to remain in place past the deadlines. But then there are other closures that are perplexing. For example, paving crews in Lawrenceville recently have stayed out through PM drive on Highway 20/northbound north of Highway 316. This isn’t in the sticks, this is in a high traffic-density area. And they just continued this non-emergency work, rush hour be damned. Decisions like that are unacceptable. The Departments of Transportation on the state level and then down to the county levels need to enforce with iron might the sanctity of open roads during rush hours. And in doing so, they need to consider widening the windows of when drive times take place. No longer is 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. a dead zone. Rush hours normally last longer and start earlier. And 5 a.m. needs to be the hard quitting time for overnight crews, because jams are often large when closures stay in place until or past 6 a.m. Yes, this never ending list of road projects leaves a damage trail of delays in the off hours also. And yes, GDOT could use more tact when they close lanes on weekends and how many they allow blocked at once. But at the very least, Atlanta traffic needs its rush hours are clear as possible. Traffic is bad enough on its own and when accidentals spoil it, without traffic professionals making mistakes and leaving lanes blocked. This continuously growing city cannot afford unnecessary lanes blocked. » RELATED: Photos: Weird things that have snarled Atlanta traffic Doug Turnbull, the PM drive Skycopter anchor for Triple Team Traffic on News 95-5 FM and AM-750 WSB, is the Gridlock Guy. He also writes a traffic blog and hosts a podcast with Smilin’ Mark McKay on wsbradio.com. Contact him at Doug.Turnbull@coxinc.com.

News

  • A lawyer who also served as a part-time judge and assistant attorney general faces a dozen charges of sexual exploitation of children. An official said in one of his jobs as a lawyer, George Randolph Jeffery, helped send a lot of people to jail for child support. Channel 2's Mark Winne counted 12 sexual exploitation of children in warrants for Jeffery.  The Georgia Bureau of Investigation said a joint GBI-FBI investigation is ongoing. Attorney Robbie Ballard said his firm represents Jeffery and Jeffery intends to plead not guilty and beyond that it is much too soon to comment. Our research suggests Jeffery held positions of trust. Walton County probate judge Bruce Wright said he inherited Jeffrey as an associate probate judge from the previous administration and Jeffrey handled an average of about one estate case for him a year for the past six years but the charges stunned him. TRENDING STORIES: Abrams sues for more time; Kemp's campaign says math is clear Rain will stick around today, rest of the week Missing woman who left home to run errand found dead Wright said he will assign Jeffery no cases while the charges are pending. He said he will refer Jeffery to the judicial qualifications commission for removal as a judge, if he's found guilty or pleads guilty. A spokesperson for Attorney General Chris Carr indicated Jeffrey had been appointed, 'to serve as a Special Assistant Attorney General representing the Georgia Department of Human Services, Division of Child Support Services - in Walton and Newton Counties. 'Attorney General Carr opposes any and all forms of child exploitation and abuse,' the statement said, 'We hold our Special Assistant Attorneys General to very high standards. Given the circumstances, we terminated Mr. Jeffery’s appointment as a Special Assistant Attorney General immediately upon getting word of the arrest.'  Documents indicate most of the charges involve photos or video but one charge involves an allegation Jeffery used an email account to entice a child for indecent purposes. We're told because of his connections to the system in Walton County, Jeffery has been transferred to the Barrow County jail, where he has been held without bond.  
  • Walmart announced Monday it will start giving military spouses a hiring preference. >> Read more trending news  There are more than 500,000 active duty military spouses nationwide, according to a company statement. While the U.S. unemployment rate is around 4 percent, the same rate among military spouses is 26 percent, with a 25 percent wage gap compared to their civilian counterparts. “Military spouses are unsung heroes,” said Walmart president and CEO Doug McMillon. “They serve in partnership with their uniformed spouses, and we want to honor them and help them find a job or build an amazing career.” The new Military Spouse Career Connection builds on the plans to hire 250,000 military veterans by 2020. So far, Walmart stores nationwide have hired 212,000, according to a company statement. “Walmart has offered me amazing career opportunities after I completed my military service. I honestly did not know what career direction I was going to take once I came home,” said Ed Gregorek, store manager at a Cleveland Walmart who served 13 years in the Army. >> Trending: Double homicide haunts family, police 33 years later Candidates must meet hiring criteria. Jobs can be found at at walmartspouseswithamission.com.
  • The wedding band has been in his family for more than a hundred years. So, when he noticed it was no longer on his finger at Saturday's Georgia football game, Stuart Howell said his heart dropped.
  • Two-way star Shohei Ohtani was a singular sensation in voting for AL Rookie of the Year. A standout on the mound and at the plate for the Los Angeles Angels, Ohtani was an overwhelming pick for American League Rookie of the Year after becoming the first player since Babe Ruth a century ago with 10 homers and four pitching wins in the same season. Atlanta Braves outfielder Ronald Acuna Jr. was a runaway pick for the NL honor over Washington outfielder Juan Soto in a contest between 20-year-olds. A 24-year-old right-hander who joined the Angels last winter after five seasons with Japan's Nippon Ham Fighters, Ohtani received 25 first-place votes and four seconds for 137 points from the Baseball Writers' Association of America in balloting announced Monday. A pair of New York Yankees infielders followed. Miguel Andujar was second with five firsts and 89 points, and Gleyber Torres was next with 25 points. Ohtani was 4-2 with a 3.31 ERA and 63 strikeouts over 51 2/3 innings in 10 starts, limited by a torn elbow ligament that required surgery on Oct. 1 and likely will prevent him from pitching next year. As a designated hitter, he batted .285 with 22 homers and 61 RBIs and a .925 OPS in 367 plate appearances. He became the first player with 15 homers as a batter and 50 strikeouts as a pitcher in the same season. Ohtani is the first Japanese player to win the honor since Seattle's Ichiro Suzuki in 2001 and the fourth overall. Andujar hit .297 with 27 homers and 92 RBIs in 149 games. The 23-year-old third baseman set a Yankees rookie record with 47 doubles, three more than Joe DiMaggio in 1936, and tied the AL rookie mark for doubles set by Boston's Fred Lynn in 1975. Torres, 21, began the season at Triple-A after missing the second half of 2017 with a torn ligament in his non-throwing arm. The second baseman made his big league debut April 22 and hit .271 with 24 homers and 77 RBIs. The 20-year-old Acuna received 27 first-place votes and three seconds for 144 points. Soto got two firsts and 89 points, and Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher Walker Buehler was next with one first and 28 points. Acuna started the season at Triple-A and made his debut on April 25, the youngest player in the majors then at 20 years, 128 days. The Venezuelan hit .293 with 26 homers, 64 RBIs and 16 steals with a .917 OPS. He set a Braves record with eight leadoff homers this season and tied a franchise mark by homering in five straight games from Aug. 11-14. Soto debuted on May 20 at 19 years, 207 days, although in a quirk the Dominican is credited with a home run from five days before his debut — he went deep on June 18 against the New York Yankees in the completion of the May 15 suspended game. Soto hit .292 with 22 homers, 70 RBIs and a .923 OPS. He was two shy of Tony Conigliaro's big league record for home runs by a teenager. Buehler, a 23-year-old right-hander, was 8-5 with a 2.62 ERA in 23 starts and one relief appearance. ___ More AP MLB: https://apnews.com/tag/MLB and https://twitter.com/AP_Sports
  • Congratulations to Atlanta Braves superstar Ronald Acuña, Jr. on winning the National League Rookie of the Year Award! Acuña finished 2018 with 26 home runs, a .293 batting average and 64 runs batted in. Ronnie ROY. Your 2018 NL Rookie of the Year: @ronaldacunajr24. pic.twitter.com/7b6UX7EIR9 — MLB (@MLB) November 12, 2018 The 20-year-old beat out Washington Nationals outfielder Juan Soto and Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher Walker Buehler. Acuña is the first Braves player to win the NL Rookie of the Year Award award since Craig Kimbrel in 2011. Before that, Rafael Furcal won in 2000. 
  • A woman who owns land near where a deadly wildfire started in Northern California said Monday that Pacific Gas & Electric Co. sought access to her property just before the blaze started because the utility's power lines were causing sparks. It's still not clear what caused the massive fire that started Thursday, killing at least 29 people and destroying the Sierra Nevada foothill town of Paradise. PG&E has said it experienced a problem on an electrical transmission line near the site of the massive fire, minutes before the blaze broke out. The fire started on 64 acres of land in Pulga, California, owned by Betsy Ann Cowley. Cowley told The Associated Press she received an email from the utility on Wednesday telling her that crews needed to come to her property to work on the high-power lines because 'they were having problems with sparks.' PG&E declined to discuss the email when contacted by AP. Two days before the fire started, PG&E told customers in nine counties, including Butte County, that it might shut off their power Nov. 8 because of extreme fire danger. The fire started about 6:30 a.m. that morning. Later that day, PG&E said it had decided against a power cut because weather conditions did not warrant one.