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    Temperatures will moderate from the big chill this weekend, but temperatures will still be cooler than normal for this time of year. However, the return of sun will lift spirits and make it more comfortable for your weekend plans. Christmas shopping? A movie? A certain football game? Drinking heavily and sobbing on the couch? It will be dry this weekend and most of next week looks dry as well with a warming trend back toward normal for this time of year by next Thursday.  That having been said there does not look to be much warm weather the rest of this month or to start next month, on average it will be on the cool side of normal.  It’s way too early for a specific Thanksgiving forecast but early indicators point to a modest rain chance on or near Turkey day with temperatures in the mid 50s for highs with lows in the low to mid 40s. The sub-tropical Southern branch of the jet stream has been active so far this autumn, and if that were to continue this winter it would raise the odds of snow or ice. Something to keep an eye on going forward. For more follow me on Twitter @MellishMeterWSB.
  • When temperatures fall below 32 degrees, water pipes are at risk of freezing and bursting. They can release several hundred gallons of water per hour, resulting in a big – potentially costly – mess in your home. What causes pipes to burst? Pipes burst because of the pressure that's exerted when water freezes. It can exceed 2,000 pounds per square inch, so it's no match for metal or plastic pipes, which will burst under this extreme pressure. Ice particles can also cause problems in your pipes by blocking valves or other areas. What should you do to protect your pipes? When temperatures are expected to drop to about 20 degrees, you should take the following steps to keep your pipes from bursting: Leave water dripping or trickling slowly from your faucets. This helps reduce the buildup of pressure inside your pipes. If the water stops dripping, it could mean that ice has formed and is blocking the pipe, providing a good indication that the situation needs close monitoring. Closely monitor all pipes. This is especially important for those located in attics, crawl spaces and outside walls and near electrical outlets, because these have the most exposure to cold temperatures. Learn where your water shutoff valve is located. That way, you'll be able to shut it off in case your pipes burst. If your home is built on a slab, your shutoff valve is probably near your hot water tank. If you have a basement, you'll probably find your shutoff valve there. And if your home is built on a crawl space, the valve will probably be located there, under the front wall of your house. If all else fails, you can also shut the water off at the city water line's covered box near the front of your home. Open cabinets beneath sinks. This is especially helpful if the sink is on an outside wall, because this helps keep the pipes underneath it warmer. Use an insulating dome or similar covering. This can cover and protect outdoor spigots.  Check the areas around pipes and hoses that come into your home. Look for signs of daylight or outside air that's getting into your home. Block the holes with insulating foam or caulk. Wrap your pipes. Look for thick foam or fiberglass insulating sleeves, UL-listed heat tape or other insulating products at a home improvement store. Wrap your pipes tightly and secure with acrylic or duct tape, cable ties, or aluminum foil tape or wire every foot or so to make sure it stays secure. Wrapping your pipes isn't expensive, and it can save a great deal of money and aggravation.
  • What’s a 30 degree temperature drop from one days high temperature to the same time the next day as shown above? (4pm Monday v 4pm Tuesday) Lyrics from the Gordon Lightfoot song the Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald come to mind: “...when the gales of November come early...twas the witch of November come stealin...” MOST of the snow or sleet/freezing rain (very little) stays in the far North Georgia mountains.  If you see any sleet (ice pellets) or snow flurries North of Hartsfield this morning don’t panic it won’t last and it won’t matter. (Most of us wont see any). For Metro Atlanta the moisture moves out as the cold air moves in so not worried about any winter precip problems here as the rain ends. The wind and dry air moving in should dry off the pavement before temperatures drop below freezing in the Atlanta area with a hard freeze Wednesday morning as temperatures dip to the January-like 20s near record levels.  8AM MODEL RADAR SIMULATION: 10AM MODEL RADAR SIMULATION: NOON MODEL RADAR SIMULATION: MODEL FORECAST TEMPERATURES 10AM: NOON: 5PM TUESDAY: WEDNESDAY MORNING MODEL LOW TEMPERATURES: The air mass trajectories show the origin of the incoming air started out near the arctic: 75% of the country will have at least a freeze this week: LIVE updates on the changing weather conditions throughout Tuesday morning on 95.5 WSB Radio.  For more follow me on Twitter @MellishMeterWSB.
  • Black ice can be one of the most dangerous hazards for wintertime drivers, since it's nearly invisible. » RELATED: Atlanta weather: Forecast, updates and news Here’s what you need to know about the weather condition:  What is black ice? It can form when the air is below freezing at the surface and it's raining, according to AccuWeather. Melting snow that refreezes, freezing rain, mist or fog can also result in black ice. It's referred to as black ice since it's clear and becomes almost invisible against the black asphalt of a road. This thin layer is very dangerous because you probably won't see it in advance and may skid, take much longer to brake and find your vehicle much more difficult to control. When and where does black ice form? Black ice is more likely to form around dawn and in the late evening because temperatures are often at their lowest then. Shaded sections of road are prone to forming black ice because they don't receive much sunlight, which can warm and melt the ice. Bridges and overpasses can also quickly form black ice since they're surrounded by cold air above and below, so they freeze more quickly. Back roads that don't see much traffic area also more prone to black ice formation. That's because friction from traffic warms the road, so roadways that don't have much traffic are more likely to ice over. How should you drive in freezing temperatures? Before you start driving, check your driveway and look at the road as best you can. If you see darker spots, which may look more duller or shinier than their surroundings, it could be black ice. Even if you don't see any, that's no guarantee, however, since road conditions can vary widely. It pays to stay alert when temperatures are at freezing or below, particularly when you're driving on potential problem areas such as shady roads or bridges. Don't use cruise control, since you may need to slow down or make other adjustments. It can also cause your car to accelerate in a skid as your cruise control tries to maintain a constant speed, and this can make it much more difficult to control your vehicle. » Why you should never use your hazard lights while driving Be aware of the cars in front of you, and if the pavement looks wet, check to see if they're leaving tracks or are kicking up water. If they're not, it could be a sign that the pavement is actually iced over, resulting in black ice roads. Also avoid unnecessarily changing lanes, where you could hit black ice between lanes. Leave enough room between you and the car in front of you so you can have adequate time to stop if the car in front of you starts to fishtail. And if it's your vehicle that hits black ice, it will take you about nine times longer to stop under these circumstances than it takes on dry pavement, according to georgia.gov. What if you hit black ice? If you do happen to hit a patch of black ice, use the following tips: Avoid braking and instead ease off of the accelerator and steer in the direction you want the front of your car to go in. Don't overcorrect if your vehicle starts to slide. If you have antilock brakes, don't pump your brakes. If you're driving a vehicle without antilock brakes, keep your heel on the floor and use firm pressure on the brake. Sources: AJC.com, cars.com, Georgia.gov and accuweather.com.
  • The incoming cold snap would be noteworthy in the dead of winter, so this polar plunge is remarkable for this early in the season. It is hardly unprecedented though so nothing we can’t handle. It is a fairly quick hit and run, in and out. We probably will not break any records locally, but places not far away probably will and lots of records will probably fall in the Midwest, Great Plains and Northeast states. But records will be possible all the way to the Gulf Coast West of here. Since this is dead of winter type polar air WINTERIZE YOUR HOME AND CAR/TRUCK. Turn-off water to the outside of the house and shut down decorative fountains. Temperatures will fall hard and fast after the cold front passes through bringing a decent shot of rain to much of Georgia late tonight into tomorrow morning before the temperature drop. Some brief sleet or snow possible mainly in the Georgia mountains early Tuesday. I’ve been warning you about this pattern change in blogs and on Twitter Since November 4th: It’s not just the actual air temperatures that are impressive but also the geographic coverage of the arctic air mass with only the far West and South Florida spared.  We’re keeping an eye on the tropospheric patterns that can lead to more polar vortex splits and sudden stratospheric warming events in the months ahead that can lead to more cold air invasions after a warm-up. A couple snow periods will come with it for the Midwest, New England and maybe even parts of the Mid-Atlantic states with flurries possible in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (not Atlanta), an inch or more of snow in parts of Tennessee and snow flakes should be seen “in the air” in areas adjacent to TN as well and as far South as Northern Louisiana.  For some areas of the country it could end up being one of the coldest ever November air masses this early in the month. And America will not be alone as much of Asia and parts of Europe will share it.  In ATLANTA during peak winter our normal high temperatures are in the 50s so this will be cold for any time of year with highs and lows below-normal and our first hard freeze coming early in many locales as the first official lows of 28 or lower is on average December 5th, a couple weeks earlier for the North suburbs.  This may naturally have you wondering if this means a cold December? Does this mean a cold winter? Short answer no, at least not necessarily by any means.  Research has shown there is SOME persistence of weather patterns from Fall to Winter and from November to December, but certainly not all the time.  I mentioned an early cold wave is not unprecedented.  Five years ago a similar big Southbound dip in the jet stream brought a big November chill: But December of that year very warm most of the country: What about last year? Did you already forget last November was colder than average?! Top 10 cold in many states just to our West and North. But the December that followed? Warm again.  In the past similar ENSO conditions/sea-surface temperature patterns in the Pacific with similar October weather as we have this year (left panels below) have lead to above-normal temperatures for much of the nation in October with cold out West like this year (right panels below): See the Decembers that followed like conditions in the past: Even without an official El Nino an El Nino-like base state of the background atmosphere response has revealed a tendency in the modern era where even in winters that end up being cold that December is biased above-normal and we’ve seen this in 2014, 2015, 2018. The 15-year or so trend has been for mild canonical El Nino Decembers.  So a betting man would say the odds favor a mild spell to return late November and/or in December after the coming cold. This does not mean December HAS to be warm, as some of the past similar El Nino-like Decembers have featured below-normal temperatures and a couple were quite cold in much of the nation like 1968 and 2009.  That’s the thing about weather: it does not work in a straight line but rather is chaotic which is why predictions are hard.  Here is the correlation between November and Winter: So there is NOT much signal from cold in November in Atlanta and a cold winter to follow, the signal is weakly positive especially if late November is cold not early November.  Dr. Joe D’Aleo did research on what type ENSO patterns had the most month to month volatility and variability this winter looks to be active and changeable (on the higher end of the range this year but NOT quite the highest): It’s way to early for a specific Thanksgiving forecast obviously, so here are some interesting notes: How November plays out and new data not yet in for October may tip the forecast for winter one way or another. I’ll update it as needed by the start of December at the latest.  MY exclusive 5-Day FORECAST is always right here 24/7/365. Bookmark it.  Download the WSB Radio APP for my forecast and my blog plus traffic and news alerts. For more follow me on Twitter @MellishMeterWSB.
  • Wednesday could be the last day this week for dry conditions and temperatures in the 70s, according to Channel 2 Action News. A strong cold front is headed for North Georgia to end the week, bringing showers and cooler air with it. After a cool start in the 30s and 40s, Channel 2 meteorologist Brian Monahan said Wednesday will finish off comfortably with lots of sunshine.  “The afternoon hours will be really nice on the warmer side for us,” he said. “Today is a dry day ... but I’m thinking ahead to Thursday’s evening commute. It’s going to get kind of wet.” The approaching cold front is expected to spread showers across North Georgia beginning Thursday evening and continue through the overnight hours. Its pace has quickened some, Monahan said.  “That also means with that faster timeline that rain will be gone by Friday morning’s commute,” he said. “So will the warm air. We'll go from the upper 60s Thursday into the mid-50s Friday.” Even lower temperatures are in the forecast for the coming days. Saturday morning is expected to start out near freezing in Atlanta, and parts of North Georgia could see numbers in the 20s, according to Channel 2. Monahan said the cooling trend continues into next week with afternoon highs 15 to 20 degrees below average. That would put Atlanta in the 40s for highs. For some perspective, the average low for this time of year is 48 degrees. “Here’s your heads up: It is going to be really cold next week for late November, really for any time of the year,” he said. “Winter is knocking on your door.” Atlanta still has a few days to go before the weather is that cold. Monahan said enjoy the more mild temperatures while you can. While some layers are warranted Wednesday morning, he said he expects temps will stay pretty level through much of the evening after hitting a high of 71 degrees in the early afternoon. “Even when the sun goes down, about 6, 7 p.m., we're still going to have temperatures in the 60s,” he said. “It looks really nice for your early evening plans, too.” He expects the clouds associated with the weather-changing cold front to arrive by Thursday morning, which will see lows in the 50s.  >>For more in-depth coverage, follow WSB Meteorologist Kirk Mellish on Twitter: @MellishMeterWSB.
  • North Georgia is looking down the barrel of a 40-degree temperature drop over the next couple of days. Afternoon highs will be near average Tuesday in the upper 60s, and Wednesday will be even warmer with a high of 70 degrees, according to Channel 2 Action News. By Saturday, those numbers are expected to slide all the way down to 33 degrees in Atlanta. That’s not the end of the slide, Channel 2 meteorologist Brian Monahan said. A much colder week is coming. “By the time we hit next week, we're going to see some lows in the teens and 20s,” Channel 2 meteorologist Brian Monahan said. “Yes, I said teens and 20s.” The next shot of cold air is expected with an approaching cold front that will bring more rain to end the work week, he said. But the coldest air of the season is still building well to the north of the state and will start to filter in next week. “That is the start of a cold weather pattern that will take us through the middle of November,” he said.  Tuesday is actually starting out pretty comfortable with some increased cloud cover helping to keep North Georgia warmer than the day before. Temperatures are in the 40s in the mountains but in the 50s everywhere else, which is about 10 to 15 degrees higher than Monday morning, according to Channel 2.  Some light sprinkles are falling in a few spots. Monahan said the rain chances are very limited Tuesday, and any places that do see rain will only get a few hundredths of an inch.  “Where it’s falling, it’s just enough to make the ground just a little bit wet, and sometimes those can be some of the slickest times you see on the roads,” he said. “Keep an eye out for some of that sheen on the roads. That will be your clue that there’s a little bit of moisture out there.” The clouds and the sprinkles should stick around through about 10 a.m., according to Channel 2. After that, North Georgia is expected to clear out. “We'll see increasing sunshine early this afternoon,” Monahan said. “By late afternoon, partly cloudy. It finishes really nice for your Tuesday as we climb up into the 60s to around 70 degrees.” Monahan said it will be slightly warmer Wednesday afternoon before the plunge in temps, but it is typical of fall to see big swings like that.  More rain could accompany the much lower temperatures. Thursday and Friday have a 40% and 30% chance of some showers, respectively.  “The possibility of a half-inch or more of rain (is) coming up Thursday night into Friday,” he said. 
  • An important reflection of weather trends is the state of the North Atlantic Oscillation NAO. Forecasters keep an eye on it both summer and winter.  Here in the Southeast it is more impactful in winter than summer.  Oversimplifying, when it is negative there is a tendency for big storms and colder than normal temperatures East of the Mississippi River.  The NAO, on average, has been in a positive phase since 2013 or so, possibly a near-record long period. And most computer models show it being mostly in a positive phase for the coming winter. A warm signal for the Eastern U.S. A positive NAO (among other things) suggests a ridge of high pressure over the Southeastern part of the country, generally suggestive of mild and dry weather more than not.  However, in recent months the NAO has trended to the negative phase. Meanwhile the MJO (Madden Julian Oscillation) in the Pacific has been moving toward a signal indicating high-latitude atmospheric blocking of the jet stream and this sometimes includes a negative NAO/AO which is a cold and sometimes stormy pattern.  While most models show a +NAO for the coming winter the low solar cycle and 11-year sunspot minimum coupled with a declining QBO suggest the opposite sign for the NAO.  Simplistically put it would be the difference between high pressure jet stream ridging in the East and South or more of a trough or dip in the jet stream in the East and South. The first indicative of warm/dry and the the second wet/cold.  Regardless of causation, when the Arctic regions warm and sea ice there is abnormally low the cold air gets displaced South into mid-latitude continental areas resulting in regional cold waves. There is strong unanimity in the global ensemble equations of a ridge over the West Coast (warm/dry) +PNA pattern to go along with the possibility of a -NAO in the coming week or two. Some data is suggesting that on a national basis it could turn into a top 10 cold first half of November since 1950. By the coming weekend for example, the GFS indicates a “wedge” (CAD event) with air mass trace origins from way up North: Not cross polar flow or truly arctic but still. If this happens this winter look out.  We are also observing the rapid advancement of snow coverage over Eurasia and North America. Which research from Judah Cohen has related to below-normal temperatures in winter over the Eastern U.S. and above normal snowfall at least in the Northeast quadrant of the country.  He points out that he’s being tongue in cheek about the cold winter everywhere thing, as in reality it doesn’t work out that way. Judah Cohen Research paper.  As I pointed out in my WINTER OUTLOOK blog, the most recent El Nino and La Nina patterns have behaved abnormally, basically opposite of the norm, suggesting like so many other parameters and trends that we are in a multi decadal regime of extremes one way or the other. Perhaps that means that the lengthy spell of mostly mild winters dating back to about 2011 may come to an end either this winter or next.  A see-saw pattern looking ahead at the jet stream (500mb level 18,000 feet) ECMWF model ensemble: For more follow me on Twitter @MellishMeterWSB.
  • For leaf peepers and apple pickers alike this is a fine weekend to head for the hills.  Set clocks back one-hour Saturday night, good time to change batteries in smoke and carbon monoxide detectors. A whopping 40 degree temperature drop from Thursdays high temperature in the mid 70s to this mornings lows in the low to mid 30s. Cool nights kick the leaf change into high gear. I know even around Kennesaw-Acworth and Woodstock where I travel most, vibrant colors have really shown up over the past week. This weekend will be dry across North and Central Georgia with plenty of sun and a chill in the air for all your apple cider, mulled wine and hot toddy hay ride needs.  The Georgia Department of Natural Resources Leaf Watch reports from the Georgia Mountains: LEAF COLOR FORECAST... This weekend: Next weekend Nov 9: Weekend of November 16th: November 23rd: Most locations did NOT quite reach or drop below freezing this morning, there were a few 31/32 readings in the usual cold spots of Bartow and Cherokee counties etc. Similar or slightly lower temperatures are expected Saturday morning. FREEZE DATES: Use this interactive map to zoom into your neighborhood and click on it for your backyard average first freeze date.  For more follow me on Twitter @MellishMeterWSB.
  • This is MY outlook for the coming winter as it stands now. Changes in data may require adjustments after final info from November becomes available.  I will issue a final winter outlook IF NECESSARY by the start of December.  I showed you in the previous blog on the topic the overwhelming majority of computer models call for a warm winter with a rough split between wet and dry.  I don’t use the models that much but use other techniques for long-range forecasting developed before the computer era. These include teleconnections and analogs. I’ve explained this in great detail many times over the past decade or so.  Over-simplifying, there are key spots around the worlds oceans that have been found to be signals to the weather weeks and months in advance as far as average jet stream and weather. There are also a number of indices that have been developed that show correlations to the weather weeks and months ahead.   So this method looks at all of those and matches the current ones to the closet past examples from history. Then a composite of that past weather history is used to project the future with the idea that what is past is prologue. Weather and climate rarely repeat exactly but similar patterns do repeat.  Just keep in mind similar is not equal to the same. As they say on Wall Street, past performance does not guarantee future results.  I pointed out that this year the ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) condition is currently weak and near-neutral and is forecast to remain such through the winter as shown in the first chart above.  A West-Central based weak “Modoki” El Nino is possible. Index forecast from Japan Met Agency: PAST ENSO CLASSIFICATIONS: EL NINO PACIFIC OCEAN REGION 3.4 FORECAST: Since the Pacific Ocean is such a major climate and weather driver when the ENSO is in a neutral or “La Nada” state (neither a clear El Nino NOR a clear La Nina) then other less predictable drivers will end up determining how the winter plays out. This raises the risk of a forecast bust and/or of a highly variable Fall, Winter and Spring pattern.  The Western Tropical Pacific is a crucial source region for the planetary circulation.  The ENSO situation also indicates a higher than normal BUST potential because of what happened last winter and what has been observed ever since. That is, many times the atmosphere and the oceans have been “decoupled”, normally they are coupled so the overlying jet stream behaves on a par with past years with similar Pacific Ocean temperature patterns. But last year and so far this year the correlation has been off. If this continues it will throw off the forecast again. A PARTIAL LIST of things looked at to make a winter outlook: ENSO including SSTA, ONI, MEI, EPO, WPO, NHI, MJO, TNH, QBO, PDO, AMO, AO, NAO, PNA, PMM, TNI, Global AAM, Indian Ocean Dipole IOD, North Pacific “Blob”, SSWE/Blocking indicators, Northern Hemisphere (Eurasia) Snow Cover advance, Arctic ice anomaly, Solar Cycle (Sunspots), Volcanic activity-atmospheric aerosol levels,  multi-decade trends and persistence of recent winters (base state), hurricane season, summer and autumn weather, Fall storm tracks, climate trends, and more.  Of course these are in a constant state of flux so they can end up behaving differently from expectation thus leading to a wrong forecast. We forecast based off where and how these things line up NOW, but they can and do change on us. For example, autumn storms can disrupt the current sea-surface temperatures and alter current expectations.  Long-range seasonal forecasting is still in its infancy compared to daily forecasting, thus a forecast for a month or more in advance has been shown scientifically to be BETTER than guessing but not by that much. I am not going to run-down all the factors in the interest of brevity, but I’ll show you a couple things being looked at for this winter. One example is a warm NE Pacific nick-named “The Blob” (by a researcher at the University of Washington): What winter jet stream pattern averaged that winter: Resulting average winter that year 2014: THIS YEAR: Oceanic SSTA teleconnections (warm and cold pools) WxBell/Weathermodels graphics: The previous SOLAR MINIMUM occurred in December of 2008, the last SOLAR MAX occurred in April of 2014. SOLAR CYCLE DATA: SILSO data/graphics Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels.  We had low solar in 2008/09 and last winter  2018-19 and yet two of the three winters were warm in much of the country. There is not a one to one correlation as many mistakenly believe.  Next looking at a combination of Westerly +QBO with a near-neutral ENSO and a Solar Minimum this winter: Mid level jet stream heights shown above + = ridge -  = trough (above or below average) and resulting temperature pattern shown below, a combination between these two: On the other hand, IF a La Nina or cool ENSO situation arrises in the months ahead and the QBO stays Westerly (+) the odds for a Southeast ridge and mild winter would increase (WxBell graphics, research by Barnston .et .al): On the other hand if the QBO switches to Easterly or a negative phase then the odds of colder and stormy increase with a trough over much of the Central and East US with blocking ridges in the + red areas: The so-called warm blob, El Nino, PDO and the sun are all interrelated. The global sea-surface temperature anomaly pattern in addition to 2014 has some similarity to 2013 as of now at least.  WINTER 2013: Other past years (analogs) with some semblance to this year on low solar and global SSTAs are 1916, 1917, 1968, 1976, 1977, 1978 and 2004: QBO: The October QBO is Westerly around +7.6 so this winter is currently looking closest to C above as of now.  So you can see, as is typically the case in weather forecasting, there are conflicting/contradictory indicators.  October temperatures last year compared to this year, not too different in the Southeast: The winter that followed mild and wet, last winter: This season I anticipate multiple storm tracks with three primary, most to our North, but with a somewhat active sub-tropical jet stream across the Southern tier of states at times while the main polar jet storm tracks will be across the Midwest/Great Lakes.  To me it looks like main storm track types will be Colorado cyclones (4 corners), Pan Handle hookers, Alberta Clippers, and Miller type B cyclones. The opportunity for Miller A type cyclone tracks does look to be present especially at the back end of winter, mid-January to mid March. WINTER 2019-2020 TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION 3-MONTH AVERAGE DECEMBER-FEBRUARY. TEMPERATURE DEPARTURE FROM NORMAL D-F, FOLLOWED BY MAP OF PRECIPITATION DEPARTURE FROM NORMAL D-F: ANALOG YEARS AND BOTTOM LINE:  1936, 1951, 1955, 1959, 1961, 1969, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1983, 1993, 1995, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2017, 2018.  I used the best match analogs to create the composite temperature and precipitation maps above. Of the top 14 analog years 11 had measurable snow, with the average being 1.7 inches. The range was 0 in three years, less than half an inch in three years and a high of 4.6 in one year. So my outlook projects the winter as a whole to have temperatures average near-normal to a bit below-normal with precipitation normal to above-normal (adjusting the analog drier) with snow/ice odds about normal. Remember this is the average for the 3-month period DJF not every day or every week. There is plenty of reason to expect periods of dry weather and warm spells with above-normal temperatures. But it’s certainly possible that when October and November inputs become available the analog list may need to be adjusted colder or warmer. I’ll do that update about December 1st if it looks necessary. HERE is a great explainer of the many factors for those who want to go more in-depth. Explore past GEORGIA SNOW EXTREMES here.