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What’s the best roof?

Age and improper installation caused most roof failures in the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes.

Which kinds survived?

  • Metal roofs had the fewest problems, followed by tiles applied with concrete or foam adhesive.
  • Nailed-on tiles didn’t fare as well.
  • Shingle roofs came off in the thousands.

    When was your roof installed? Roofs installed after the mid-1990s, when building codes began to change statewide after Hurricane Andrew, survived better than those installed earlier.

    Shingle roofs

    How old is your shingle roof? Shingles become brittle and lose adhesion in the Florida sun after about 12 years even if they were properly installed. Has your shingle roof been re-roofed on top of old shingles? If so, beware. Large segments of those newer layers flew off in the high winds.

    Tile roofs

    How was your roof tile applied? Tiles applied with only concrete or foam adhesive fared better than nailed-on or screwed-on tiles, which can begin leaking after seven to 10 years. As with shingles, age affects performance.

    Flat roofs

    How many layers or ‘plys’ make up your flat roof? A three- or four-ply interlining (under the roof coating) is generally better than two. Expect a multi-layered flat roof to last 15 to 18 years.

    Metal roofs

    Is your metal roof properly attached? Metal roofs are the most expensive but also proved to be the most hurricane-resistant.

    If the roofers used the correct attachment method, either screws or clips, the wind will have a difficult time getting underneath metal roof panels.

    Sealants

    Do roof sealants and coatings help protect roofs from high winds? “I don’t recommend them,” says Joe Byrne, a roofing industry consultant and owner of Byrne Roofing in West Palm Beach, who says sealants can make shingles more brittle, affecting adhesion.

    Where to verify a roofer’s valid license:

  • State licenses: www.myflorida.com
  • Palm Beach County: (561) 233-5525, www.pbcgov.com/pzb
  • Martin County: (772) 288-5482
  • St. Lucie County: (772) 462-1672 or (772) 462-1673
  • Okeechobee: (863) 763-5548
  • Price-gouging hot line: (866) 966-7226
  • Report unlicensed contractors at (866) 532-1440

    — Barbara Marshall

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    News

    • House Speaker Paul Ryan is still being non-committal about whether he'll seek re-election to an 11th term.The Republican says that's a decision he always makes with his wife 'each and every term' before Wisconsin's filing deadline. The deadline this year is June 1.Ryan adds 'I'm not going to share my thinking with you before I even talk to my wife.'Ryan is being asked about his future on CBS's Face the Nation.Ryan will be a heavy favorite to win re-election, but mid-term elections are historically difficult for the party in power. Democrats are voicing increasing confidence about their prospects of winning the House.Ryan has made clear he's not going anywhere anytime soon, telling The Associated Press last month: 'I've got no plans to do anything different.
    • “Saturday Night Live” is joking about Atlanta’s traffic, accents and Southern cooking after Amazon named the city as one of 20 finalists for its second headquarters. Not even Coca-Cola, Chick-fil-A and Waffle House escaped comedians’ jibes on the latest episode of “SNL.” The episode also took aim at three other cities contending for the internet retail company’s business: Boston, Miami and Newark, N.J. Amazon is deciding where to locate as many as 50,000 employees at a headquarters that would supplement its main campus in Seattle.
    • Former Milwaukee Sheriff David Clarke's run-in with a 25-year-old man who shook his head at him while boarding a flight last year is headed to trial.Daniel Black sued the sheriff for having deputies detain him and question him at Milwaukee's airport, but Clarke's taunting social media posts remain the focus of the case. Here's a look at history of the case and the legal issues that will play out in federal court. The trial starts Monday.___THE PLANE CONFRONTATIONClarke and Black were boarding a flight from Dallas to Milwaukee on Jan. 15, 2017 — the day Clarke's beloved Dallas Cowboys were facing the Green Bay Packers in the playoffs. The sheriff was clad in Dallas gear without his trademark cowboy hat and Black said he didn't immediately recognize him because of that. He asked Clarke if he was Milwaukee's sheriff, according to his lawsuit, and when Clarke said yes, Black shook his head disapprovingly.Black said he made the gesture because Clarke was supporting a rival team. Clarke, who attracts controversy because of his provocative and brash personality, didn't see the gesture as harmless and asked deputies to meet Black at the airport and question him.___THE AFTERMATHBlack said deputies questioned him for about 15 minutes but didn't cite or arrest him. When Black publicized the encounter and filed his lawsuit, Clarke responded with a series of Facebook posts. Clarke said at the time he 'reserves the reasonable right to pre-empt a possible assault,' and also posted that the next time someone pulled the same 'stunt on a plane they may get knocked out.' Later, making fun of Black, Clarke wrote on Facebook: 'Cheer up, snowflake ... if Sheriff Clarke were to really harass you, you wouldn't be around to whine about it.'___WHERE THE LAWSUIT STANDSBlack's lawsuit initially made several claims. He contended that Clarke's directive for his deputies to detain him amounted to unconstitutional search and seizure, and that the sheriff's actions violated his due-process rights and infringed on his free speech.But earlier this month, Judge J.P. Stadtmueller dismissed all but one of Black's claims — whether Clarke's Facebook posts were threatening enough to be considered a deterrent to future speech.Stadtmueller said the posts could be interpreted in different ways: On one hand, the posts could be seen as 'intentionally hyperbolic (and juvenile) attempts at mockery and self-promotion' and not intimidating. But, he also said 'the Court cannot say Clarke's posts were so trivial that no jury could find them to be sufficiently threatening.'___WHAT HAPPENS NOWThe trial is expected to last all day Monday. While Black is likely to testify, it's less clear whether Clarke will take the stand.Black wants a jury to award him a compensation amount that they choose for emotional distress and other damages, as well as attorneys' fees.Although Clarke is no longer sheriff, the county is paying his legal bills and ultimately will be liable for any damages. Clarke resigned Aug. 31 to join a political action committee that supports President Donald Trump.
    • On day two of the U.S. government shutdown, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said Republicans would not adopt President Donald Trump’s call for a “nuclear option” to pass a budget with a simple majority, The New York Daily News reported Sunday. >> Read more trending news “The Republican Conference opposes changing the rules on legislation,” a spokesman for McConnell (R-Ky.) said in a statement to the Daily News. The Senate is set to reconvene at 1 p.m. Sunday. In a tweet Sunday morning Trump had called for the Senate to change the rules on filibusters, which requires a 60 votes to advance a bill. Trump’s “nuclear option” calls for a simple majority of 51 votes. “Great to see how hard Republicans are fighting for our Military and Safety at the Border. The Dems just want illegal immigrants to pour into our nation unchecked. If stalemate continues, Republicans should go to 51% (Nuclear Option) and vote on real, long term budget, no C.R.'s!” Trump tweeted. The government officially shut down just after midnight Saturday when the Senate could not muster enough votes to advance a new spending bill.  Republicans have branded the deadlock the “Schumer Shutdown,” blaming the impasse on Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.). Democrats. meanwhile, have called it the “Trump Shutdown.”
    • Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle' outdid another weekend's worth of newcomers to top the North American box office for the third straight weekend, making the surprise hit the fifth-highest grossing film of all time for Sony Pictures.'Jumanji' sold $20 million in tickets, according to studio estimates Sunday, bringing its five-week domestic total to $317 million. Landing in second is Warner Bros.' war drama '12 Strong,' starring Chris Hemsworth. It grossed $16.5 million in its debut weekend.The heist thriller 'Den of Thieves' slots in at third place with an opening weekend of $15.3 million. The STXfilms release stars Gerard Butler and Curtis '50 Cent' Jackson.___This story has been updated to correct the title of 'Den of Thieves.